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Compression Test

What is Compression Testing Machine ?

Compression Test machines are universal testing machines specially configured to evaluate static compressive strength characteristics of materials, products, and components.

How Does Compression Testing Machine Work

Compression test machines (CTM) are used to determine a material’s strength under applied crushing loads, and are usually conducted by applying compressive pressure to a test specimen with compression platens or specialized fixtures on a universal testing machine or a specialized compression only test machine.

Compression Test

What is Compresssion Test ?

A compression test is any test in which a material experiences opposing forces that push inward upon the specimen from opposite sides or is otherwise compressed, “squashed”, crushed, or flattened. The test sample is generally placed in between two plates that distribute the applied load across the entire surface area of two opposite faces of the test sample and then the plates are pushed together by a universal test machine causing the sample to flatten.

A compressed sample is usually shortened in the direction of the applied forces and expands in the direction perpendicular to the force. A compression test is essentially the opposite of the more common tension test.

performing test on compression testing machine

How To Perform its Test

To perform a compression test, a sample is loaded into a compression tester with a compression fixture and a load is applied and is essentially crushed until failure.

purpose of compression test

What is the Purpose of Compression Test

The goal of compression testing is to determine the behavior or response of a material while it experiences a compressive load by measuring fundamental variables, such as, strain, stress, and deformation. By testing a material in compression the compressive strength, yield strength, ultimate strength, elastic limit, and the elastic modulus among other parameters may all be determined.

With the understanding of these different parameters and the values associated with a specific material it may be determined whether or not the material is suited for specific applications or if it will fail under the specified stresses. 

Common compression tests inlcude:

  • Top-load (Crush)
  • Flexure (Bend)
  • Spring